John McCloy Papers

Documents from [1943] to [1983]

Identity Statement

HAEU Reference Code
Extent and Medium

n.8 files

Reference Archivists

Carr, Mary

Content and Structure


The John McCloy papers relating to Jean Monnet and European/US co-operation reveal the special relationship, what Thomas Schwartz called the «Transnational Partnership» (1) between the two men. McCloy was a lawyer by profession and it was in this capacity, while working for the Cravath law firm, that he and Monnet met. Another Cravath lawyer, Donald Swatland, who worked with Monnet on the re-organisation of Transamerica, a holding company of Amadeo Giannini's Bancamerica, introduced the two men. McCloy would have been familiar with the problems Monnet had with the over-valuation of Transamerica in 1931. They were re-acquainted during the war years when McCloy as assistant US Secretary of War helped Monnet to influence Roosevelt's opinion towards all out production and participation in the war. Both men worked together in Algiers in 1942, in mobilising General Giraud and his troops against the Germans and after Pearl Harbour they worked together on America's Victory Programme. McCloy shared the same viewpoint as Monnet thatAmerican policy should promote German integration into a United Europe. After the war in his position as President of the World Bank, McCloy remained aware of France's supply needs, he provided loans to France so that the Monnet Plan for the re-construction of the French economy could be implemented. In 1949 McCloy became US High Commissioner of the Federal Republic of Germany. It was in this post that he had the greatest impact in influencing American policy makers toward the idea of European integration espoused by Monnet. Both men opposed Treasury Secretary Morgenthau's plans to de-industrialise Germany, instead McCloy worked to ensure the success of the Schuman Plan and the establishment of the European Coal and Steel Community. McCloy recognised from his time in Europe that the key to solving the problems in Europe was to create a United States of Europe. The John McCloy papers reveal the close personal and working relationship both men shared.

Allied Materials

Location of Originals

The originals are held in various Archives and Presidential Libraries in the USA


Notes and Remarks

1. MONNET AND THE AMERICANS, Hackett, Clifford P. (ed.), Washington, 1995 p.170

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